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Mongolia is a landlocked country within Northern Asia, strategically located between Russia and China. At 1,564,116 km2 (603,909 sq, mi), Mongolia is the world’s 19th largest country. The Khüiten peak along the Chinese border in Western Mongolia is the highest point (4.374 meters). The lowest point can be found in the Eastern Mongolian plain at (518 meters). The country has an average elevation of 1,580 meters.

The geographical regions within Mongolia vary differently; with the Gobi desert to the south and mountainous regions to the north and the west.  The landscape includes one of Asia's largest freshwater lakes (Lake Khövsgöl), many salt lakes, marshes, sand dunes, rolling grasslands, alpine forests, and permanent mountain glaciers. Northern and western Mongolia are seismically active zones, with frequent earthquakes and many hot springs and extinct volcanoes. The productive regions of Mongolia—a tableland ranging from 3,000 to 5,000 ft (914 to 1,524 m) in elevation—are in the north, which is well drained by numerous rivers, including the Hovd, Onon, Selenga and Tula.