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Mongolian History

Since stone age

Mongolia has several significant prehistoric sites such as the Northern Cave of Blue (Paleolithic cave drawings) in Khovd Province, White Cave in province of Bayankhongor, and Dornod Province (Neolithic farming village) which all suggests that Mongolia had been occupied for more than 800,000 years. The Mongol tribes emerged from an area which had been inhabited by humans as far back as the Stone Age, over 100,000 years ago. The peoples there went through the bronze age and iron age, then forming tribal alliances and beginning to battle with China. By the third century BC, there was evidence of a nomadic culture, comprising Turkic peoples in tribes which battled with each other and neighboring cultures. They were subdued temporarily by the growing strength of the Chinese Tang Dynasty in the 7th century. Over the next few hundred years, the Chinese subtly encouraged warfare among the Mongol tribes, as a way of keeping them distracted from invading China. In the 12th century, the Mongol Genghis Khan was able to unite or conquer the warring tribes, forging them into a fighting force which went on to create the largest contiguous empire in world history.

Chinggis Khaan’s period

The history of Mongolia is dominated by the mythical stature of Genghis Khan (Chinggis Khan for the mongols) who has the head of these hordes of wandering tribes reunified under its banner, conquered At the 13th century the vastest empire which the ground ever knew, cutting through has path of blood and fury of the Pacific Ocean to the heart of Europe. Temujin, its true name before being proclaimed Chinggis Khan, is quasi has divinity for Mongolian: it brought to them glory, the conquests and has code of conduct and organization.

Since Chinggis Khaan’s period

Chinggis Khan's grandson Kubilai Khan who conquered China and established the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368 AD) gained fame in Europe through the writings of Marco Polo. Although Mongol-led confederations sometimes exercised wide political power over their conquered territories their strength declined rapidly after the Mongol dynasty in China was overthrown in 1368. The Manchus a tribal group which conquered China in 1644 and formed the Qing dynasty were able to bring Mongolia under Manchu control in 1691 as Outer Mongolia when the Khalkha Mongol nobles swore an oath of allegiance to the Manchu emperor. The Mongol rulers of Outer Mongolia enjoyed considerable autonomy under the Manchus and all Chinese claims to Outer Mongolia following the establishment of the republic have rested on this oath. In 1727 Russia and Manchu China concluded the Treaty of Khiakta delimiting the border between China and Mongolia that exists in large part today. Outer Mongolia was a Chinese province (1691-1911) an autonomous state under Russian protection (1912-19) and again a Chinese province (1919- 21). As Manchu authority in China waned and as Russia and Japan confronted each other Russia gave arms and diplomatic support to nationalists among the Mongol religious leaders and nobles. The Mongols accepted Russian aid and proclaimed their independence of Chinese rule in 1911 shortly after a successful Chinese revolt against the Manchus. By agreements signed in 1913 and 1915 the Russian Government forced the new Chinese Republican Government to accept Mongolian autonomy under continued Chinese control presumably to discourage other foreign powers from approaching a newly independent Mongolian state that might seek support from as many foreign sources as possible.

1921 Mongolia people's revolution

The Russian revolution and civil war afforded Chinese warlords an opportunity to re-establish their rule in Outer Mongolia and Chinese troops were dispatched there in 1919. Following Soviet military victories over White Russian forces in the early 1920s and the occupation of the Mongolian capital Urga in July 1921 Moscow again became the major outside influence on Mongolia. The Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed on November 25 1924. Between 1925 and 1928 power under the communist regime was consolidated by the Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party (MPRP). The MPRP left gradually undermined rightist elements seizing control of the party and the government. Several factors characterized the country during this period--the society was basically nomadic and illiterate; there was no industrial proletariat; the aristocracy and the religious establishment shared the country's wealth; there was widespread popular obedience to traditional authorities; the party lacked grassroots support; and the government had little organization or experience. In an effort at swift socioeconomic reform the leftist government applied extreme measures which attacked the two most dominant institutions in the country--the aristocracy and the religious establishment. Between 1932 and 1945 their excess zeal intolerance and inexperience led to anti-communist uprisings. In the late 1930's purges directed at the religious institution resulted in the desecration of hundreds of Buddhist institutions and imprisonment of more than 10 000 people. During World War II because of a growing Japanese threat over the Mongolian-Manchurian border the Soviet Union reversed the course of Mongolian socialism in favor of a new policy of economic gradualism and buildup of the national defense. The Soviet-Mongolian army defeated Japanese forces that had invaded eastern Mongolia in the summer of 1939 and a truce was signed setting up a commission to define the Mongolian-Manchurian border in the autumn of that year. Following the war the Soviet Union reasserted its influence in Mongolia. Secure in its relations with Moscow the Mongolian Government shifted to postwar development focusing on civilian enterprise. International ties were expanded and Mongolia established relations with North Korea and the new communist governments in Eastern Europe. It also increased its participation in communist-sponsored conferences and international organizations. Mongolia became a member of the United Nations in 1961. In the early 1960s Mongolia attempted to maintain a neutral position amidst increasingly contentious Sino-Soviet polemics; this orientation changed in the middle of the decade. Mongolia and the Soviet Union signed an agreement in 1966 that introduced large-scale Soviet ground forces as part of Moscow's general buildup along the Sino-Soviet frontier. During the period of Sino-Soviet tensions relations between Mongolia and China deteriorated. In 1983 Mongolia systematically began expelling some of the 7 000 ethnic Chinese in Mongolia to China. Many of them had lived in Mongolia since the 1950s when they were sent there to assist in construction projects. Democratic Revolution in Mongolia became and the first multiparty elections are held in 1990. A new single-chamber parliament is introduced in 1992. The MLRP wins 71 of the 76 seats.



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